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民族概况
蒙古族在云南有2.8万人,主要居住在玉溪市通海县兴蒙蒙古族乡。
村寨介绍

蒙古族在云南有2.8万人,多为元世祖忽必烈征战云南时所率部署的后裔,通海县兴蒙蒙古族乡是较集巾的聚居地,其余的蒙古族同胞则与各族群众共处杂居,主要分于滇中城乡。兴蒙乡的蒙古人有不同于内地大草原的语言和服饰,代表带庆是三年一轮的那达慕大会。其先民早年入滇,在现址附近驻防,迁入现址后改以渔业为生,随着杞麓湖水位渐退,则改以农耕为主。

蒙古族村主要由云南通海兴蒙蒙古族乡代表性的合院系“一颗印”式的建筑、蒙古包及跑马场等组合而成,既表现了大草原游牧民族的祖风特征,又展示了云南蒙古族独特的建筑风格。

Population of the Mongolian ethnic group in Yunnan has added up to 28,000 and most of the Yunnan Mongolian are offspring of the Mongolian soldiers led by the First Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan to fight an expeditionary war in Yunnan. The majority of Yunnan Mongols live in a compact community at the Xingmeng Mongolian Township of Tonghai County, whereas the rest of them have blended with local people of different ethnic groups in urban or rural areas of Central Yunnan. The Mongols in Xingmeng  Township have developed their own language and costumes, all of which show considerable differences compared with those of the Mongolians on the North China grasslands .The representative festival of the Yunnan Mongolian minority is the Nadam Fair that is held every three years. The military ancestors of the Yunnan Mongols came to Yunnan in the Yuan Dynasty, and were stationed in the vicinity of the present-day residence of the Yunnan Mongols . Gradually, they gathered and settled down at the present-day Xingmeng Township, and changed their pastoral life to that of the fishermen. With the dropping of the Qilu Lake water, Yunnan Mongolians further changed their pattern of subsistence from fishing to farming.

Key constructions of the Mongolian Village include a “seal-shaped” building, a Mongolian yurt and a turf, all of which are replicas of the Mongolian constructions at Xingmeng Township of Tonghai County. The architectural style of Yunnan Mongols has not only embodied features of their nomad ancestors, but also displayed their unique architectural art.

民居建筑
“蒙古包”是满族对蒙古族牧民住房的称呼。“包”满语是“家”、“屋”的意思。古时候称蒙古包为“穹庐”、“毡帐”或“毡房”等,最大优点就是拆装容易,搬迁简便,架设时将“哈纳”拉开便成圆形的围墙,拆卸时将哈纳折叠合回体积便缩小,又能当牛、马车的车板,看起来外形虽小,但包内使用面积却很大,且室内空气流通,采光条件好,冬暖夏凉,非常适合于经常转场放牧民居住和使用。
宗教信仰
蒙古族信奉多神,所谓万物有灵万物有神。家内堂屋楼上供奉“天地君亲师”牌位和祖先牌位,厨房供奉灶王爷,每个族姓有宗词。早期信仰萨满教,元代以后普遍信仰喇嘛教。
礼仪习俗
见面要互致问候,即便是陌生人也要问好,款待行路人是蒙古族的传统美德,但到蒙古族人家里做客必须敬重主人。进入蒙古包后,要盘腿围着炉灶坐在地毡上,炉西面是主人的居处。主人敬上的奶茶,客人通常是要喝的,不喝有失礼貌;主人请吃奶制品,客人不要拒绝。献哈达也是蒙古族的一项高贵礼节。献哈达时,献者躬身双手托着递给对方,受者亦应躬身双手接过或躬身让献者将哈达挂在脖子上,并表示谢意。
语言
蒙古族有自己的语言文字。蒙古语属阿尔泰语系蒙古语族,有内蒙古、卫拉特、巴尔虎布利亚特三种方言。
婚俗
蒙古族人一般在金秋八月开始谈婚论嫁。小伙子的父母委托信赖的说亲人,择个好日子带上儿子去看中的姑娘家说亲。姑娘及父母如果看上就收下献上的哈达和一盘饼食,这事就此定了下来。冬天是举办婚礼的好日子,经双方选定日子后,新郎家于傍晚时分到姑娘家接亲,民族风格浓厚、趣味横生的各种婚礼节目连续上演,一直到东方发白;接亲的队伍才跨上骏马,同送亲的队伍一道往新郎家进发。在离新郎家不远时送亲的队伍停下,迎亲的队伍到家后重新偕同新郎的父母亲人前来第二次迎接。在婆婆为儿媳妇掀开盖头后,新郎新娘得向父母、主婚人、亲戚们一一行磕头礼并敬酒。众人也会兴奋地唱起敬酒歌、跳起舞,欢乐在草原上荡漾。
服饰
首饰、长袍、腰带和靴子是蒙古族服饰的4个主要部分,妇女头上的装饰多用玛瑙、珍珠、金银制成。男子穿长袍和围腰,妇女衣袖上绣有花边图案,上衣高领,仍与蒙古族相似。妇女喜欢穿三件长短不一的衣服,第一件为贴身衣,袖长至腕,第二件外衣,袖长至肘,第三件为无领对襟坎肩,钉有直排闪光纽扣,格外醒目。
文化
蒙古族的民间文学主要有民间传说、民歌民谣、故事等,具有代表性的是民间长篇故事《阿扎拉的故事》。
饮食
蒙古族富有特色的食品如烤羊、手把羊肉、大炸羊、烤羊腿、奶豆腐、蒙古包子、蒙古馅饼等。民间还有稀奶油、奶皮子、菜羊肉卷、新苏饼、烘干大米饭。
歌舞
蒙古族善于歌舞,民歌分长短调两种。他们最喜欢的舞蹈叫“跳乐”,即众人围成一圈,一边舞蹈,一边击掌高歌。
节日
传统节日有白节、祭敖包、那达慕、打鬃节等。一年之中最大的节日是相当于汉族春节的年节,亦称“白月”,传说与奶食的洁白有关,含有祝福吉祥如意的意思。