当前村寨:彝族 <<网站首页 <<民俗村寨

民族概况
彝族约420万人口,是省内人口最多、分布最广的少数民族,主要聚居在金沙江、元江流域和哀牢山、无量山腹地。
村寨介绍

彝族在云南境内约471万人,是省内人口最多、分布最广的少数民族,主要聚居在金沙江、元江流域和哀牢山、无量山腹地。彝族是一个能歌善舞的民族,民间打歌、跳乐之风盛行,大三弦、跌脚舞久负盛名。火把节是彝族最具特色的民族节日。

彝族村占地50余亩,三虎浮雕墙与虎头内祖师形象表现了彝族虎鹰文化。太阳历广场图腾柱上有太阳、虎、火和八卦图形象,周围环绕着10个朝向不同的月球造型,外圆周有12生肖石雕。依山而建的“土掌房”歌舞楼、民居房、汤锅坊及织绣间,以及土司院等,表现了生态和谐。村中建有斗牛场和茶山园,还有秋千等民间体育设施。

Numbering 4.71 million, the Yi minority is Yunnan’s largest minority group in terms of population and areas of distribution. The Yi minority people of Yunnan Province mostly live in compact communities along the Jinsha River and Yuanjiang River reaches, or in the hinterland of the Ailao Mountain and Wuliang Mountain. A minority group keen on singing and dancing, the Yi people are extremely well-known for their dage, tiaoyue, dasanxian (large three-stringed guitar) and diejiao dances. Torch Festival is the Yi minority’s biggest annual celebration that shows the most distinctive ethnic minority features.

The Yi Village is constructed on a land patch measuring over 50 mu, and major components of the village include the relief-sculpture wall showing three tigers and the tiger-head figure representing the Neizushi or founder of the Yi religion, all of which symbolize the “tiger- and eagle-worshiping culture” of the Yi minority people. The totem poles on the Solar Calendar Square are richly decorated with imageries of the sun, tiger, fire and the Eight Diagrams, around which are 10 moon-shaped sculptures that face different directions. On the outer circumference of the square are stone carvings of the 12 shengxiao (12 animals which represent the 12 Earthly Branches, used to symbolize the year in which a person is born). Buildings constructed on the mountain slope include the tuzhang-style theater which is consisted of rammed earth walls and roof, local people’s houses, the tangguo house which is virtually a kitchen, the cloth-weaving and embroidering rooms and the headman’s compound, all of which fully portray the Yi people’s ecological concept of seeking harmonious coexistence with the nature. Other components of the Yi Village include the bullfighting ground, tea plantations, swings and other minority sport facilities.



民居建筑
土掌房--彝族独特的民居建筑:彝族的“土掌房”的墙体以泥土为料,修建时用夹板固定,填土夯实逐层加高后形成土墙(即“干打垒”)。彝族住房多为三间或五间,正中一间为堂屋,是家庭成员聚会之所,亦为接待客人之所。靠墙壁左侧,设一火塘,火塘边立石三块成鼎状,锅支其上,称为“锅庄”,庄严禁人踩踏跨越,否则认为不吉。上方以蔑索吊一长方形木架,上铺竹条,作烘烤野兽干肉或蒜头、花椒、辣子之用。可用以煮饭、烧茶、取暖和照明。火塘成为彝族传递文化的场所。
宗教信仰
彝族宗教具有浓厚的原始宗教色彩,崇奉多神,主要是万物有灵的自然崇拜和祖先崇拜。自然崇拜中,最主要是对精灵和鬼魂的信仰。
礼仪习俗
彝族实行父系小家庭制,婚后分爨别居。通常幼嗣承家,女子无财产继承权。彝族少女成年时要举行一种神秘的“换裙”仪式,彝语“沙拉洛”,意为脱去童年的裙子,换上成年的裙子。换裙仪式多在单岁举行,双岁换裙视为不吉利。
语言
彝语属汉藏语系藏缅语族彝语支,有6个方言,25种土语。彝族有本民族文字,在明、清文献中称之为“爨文”、“爨字”或“韪书”,近代也称“倮文”、“夷书”、“毕摩文”等,是一种超方言的音节文字。
婚俗
彝家婚俗有姑舅表优先婚、抢婚等多种形式,姑舅表优先婚表现为,姑舅表兄弟姐妹,无论哪一方的子女,都鼓励他们彼此通婚,并享有缔婚的优先权。姑家的女儿要嫁给别人,必须征得舅家的同意。“抢婚”有真抢婚和假抢婚两种类型,“真抢婚”是青年男女从认识到相爱,因经济状况和社会地位的差异遭到女方家庭的反对,以致不得不采取非和平手段来达到结婚目的。事后男方会请自己的亲戚朋友帮忙,派人去女方家说情,女方碍于情面,只好答应这门亲事,重新举行结婚仪式,抢婚宣告成功效。“假抢婚”只是个形式。
服饰
男子通常穿黑色窄袖右斜襟上衣和多褶宽裤脚长裤,有的地区穿小裤脚长裤,并在头前部正中蓄小绺长发头帕,右方扎一钳形结。妇女较多地保留民族特点,通常头上缠包头,有围腰和腰带;一些地方的妇女有穿长裙的习惯。男女外出时身披擦尔瓦。首饰有耳坠、手镯、戒指、领排花等,多用金银及玉石做成。
文化
彝族创制过10个月为1年的太阳历,并有《历算书》、十二兽历法》、《太阳历》等彝文典籍记述,已引起天文史学界的高度重视。还创有彝文药典《齐苏书》。
饮食
彝族风味主食是荞粑,云南彝族传统佳肴白水煮乳猪,用乳猪水煮后蘸食。云南彝族风味名小吃锅巴油粉,用豌豆面制成。彝族喜食酸、辣,嗜酒,有以酒待客的礼节。酒为解决各类纠纷,结交朋友、婚丧嫁娶等各种场合中必不可少之物。
歌舞
彝族的民间舞蹈往往和歌唱、器乐的演奏分不开。著名的舞蹈有“阿细跳月”、“烟盒舞”、“左脚舞”等,都是集体舞蹈,通常用笛子、月琴、大三弦等乐器伴奏。“跳菜”——彝族的歌舞伴餐:“跳菜”即舞蹈着上菜,它是云南无量山、哀牢山彝族民间一种独特的上菜形式和宴宾时的最高礼仪,是舞蹈、音乐与杂技完美结合的历史悠久的传统饮食文化。
节日
彝族的节日主要有火把节、彝族年、拜本主会、密枝节、跳歌节等。“火把节”是彝族地区最普遍而最隆重的传统节日,一般在农历六月二十四日至二十六日晚上举行 。每到火把节,彝族男女老少,身穿节日盛装,打牲畜祭献灵牌,尽情跳舞唱歌、赛马、摔跤。夜晚,手持火把,转绕住宅和田间,然后相聚一地烧起篝火,翩翩起舞。